Author ORCID Identifier

Shima Moradi: 0000-0001-5556-4098

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Science and Public Policy



Medical Subject Headings

Science, Scholarly Communication, Public Policy, Policy Making, Europe


This study aims to review the open science (OS) policy documents, identify their subject areas, and distinguish the topics of OS support policies in seven European countries, providing a platform for practical cooperation between countries in science popularization. With a qualitative– inductive approach, all pertinent policy documents in OS were collected through documentary study, and thematic analysis was conducted to identify OS policies for each country. Finally, forty-six policy documents extracted up to December 2020 were thematically analyzed through a qualitative–inductive case study. All selected countries had developed OS policies, and these supportive policies were generally related to the three dimensions of ‘open input, open process, and open output’. In ‘open input’, recommendations for the performance of research data repositories, as well as management criteria, are considered. Most countries adopted ‘open output’ protectionist policies. Multiple policies in the ‘open process’ indicate the need for an appropriate OS platform.


Originally published as Moradi, S. & Abdi, S (2023, March 4). Open science–related policies in Europe. Science and Public Policy.

Published by Oxford University Press 2023. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.